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ISSN : 1229-1153(Print)
ISSN : 2465-9223(Online)
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety Vol.33 No.5 pp.325-329
DOI : https://doi.org/10.13103/JFHS.2018.33.5.325

Combination of Hydrophobic Filtration and Enrichment Methods for Detecting Bacillus cereus in Fresh-Cut Cabbage

Sujung Lee1,2, Yukyung Choi1,2, Heeyoung Lee2, Sejeong Kim1,2, Jeeyeon Lee1,2, Jimyeong Ha1,2, Hyemin Oh1,2, Yewon Lee1,2, Yujin Kim1,2, Yohan Yoon1,2, Soomin Lee2*
1Department of Food and Nutrition, Sookmyung Women’s University, Seoul, Korea
2Risk Analysis Research Center, Sookmyung Women’s University, Seoul, Korea
Correspondence to: Soomin Lee, Risk Analysis Research Center, Sookmyung Women's University, Seoul 04210, Korea Tel: 82-2-2077-7585, Fax: 82-2-710-9479 E-mail: slee0719@naver.com
April 5, 2018 July 16, 2018 October 1, 2018

Abstract


This study developed a rapid detection method for Bacillus cereus in fresh-cut cabbages. Fresh-cut cabbage samples were inoculated at 1-, 2- and 3-Log CFU/g, and pathogens were enriched in tryptic soy broth containing 0.15% polymyxin B at 30°C, 37°C, and 42°C,to determine the detection limit and appropriate enrichment temperature for multiplex PCR detection. Enriched bacterial cells in enrichment broth were collected in a hydrophobic filter prior to DNA extraction for multiplex PCR. Filters were resuspended in distilled water, and DNA was extracted from the suspension. DNA samples were further analyzed by multiplex PCR. Detection limit of multiplex PCR was 5-Log CFU/mL. B. cereus cell counts were higher (P < 0.05) at 42°C,than other temperatures. Detection rate of 1-, 2-, and 3-Log CFU/g inoculated samples were 60%, 80%, and 100% after enrichment respectively. However, when enriched samples were filtered with hydrophobic membrane filter, detection rates became 100%, regardless of inoculation level. Results indicate a combination of enrichment with hydrophobic filtration improves rapid detection efficiency of B. cereus in fresh-cut cabbage by multiplex PCR.



초록


    Rural Development Administration
    PJ01193002

    Fresh-cut vegetables that are consumed raw, are being concerned for foodborne pathogens, because they could be contaminated throughout cultivation, irrigation, post harvesting, and packaging1,2). As the vegetable consumption has been increased, Bacillus cereus has been recognized as one of the most frequently detected foodborne pathogens in freshcut vegetables with low concentration about 3-Log CFU/g1,3). Thus, the detection method of B. cereus should be able to detect low concentration of B. cereus and distinguish B. cereus from other B. cereus group3-7). However, conventional methods of B. cereus detection require 24~48 h for enumeration in selective culture media and additional 18~48 h for identification5,8,9).

    To complement selective culture methods, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based detection methods (e.g. real-time PCR and droplet digital PCR) have been developed for rapid detection10,11). However, PCR methods were sensitive to inhibitors and used for identification only with isolated colony12-14). Ganji et al.15) reported that Clostridium perfringens was identified by PCR when the cell concentration was presented upto 4-Log CFU/g in food samples, and B. cereus need to be concentrated upto 3-Log CFU/mL to be detected by multiplex PCR in cold dish samples. Thus, if cell concentrations can increase rapidly, bacteria in samples can be detected directly by PCR, and enrichment method has been accompanied as one of the pretreatment method to apply PCR method16). PCR inhibitors that contained in the food and environmental samples can interfere PCR reactions 13). Wei et al.17) identified that polysaccharides, polyphenols, and pectin may interfere PCR reactions. To improve the PCR reactions, silica membrane filtration and column chromatography using Chelex and cetrimonium bromide have been used18,19). Also, two-step filtration was applied to remove PCR inhibitory substances from beef samples20). Nabil et al.21) conducted hydrophobic membrane filter procedure for concentration of viruses. However, there have been few previous studies on the application of hydrophobic filtration in prior to PCR for the bacteria detection. Therefore, this study developed the efficient detection method for B. cereus in fresh-cut cabbages

    Materials and Methods

    Inocula preparation

    A single colony of each B. cereus strain [B. cereus KCTC-1013, B. cereus KCTC1014, B. cereus KCTC1092, B. cereus KCTC1094, and B. cereus KCTC3624] was cultured in 10 mL tryptic soy broth (TSB; Becton, Dickinson and Company, Sparks, MD, USA) at 30°C for 24 h. One tenth milliliter aliquot was then cultured in 10 mL of TSB at 30°C for 24 h. A five-strain mixture (50 mL) of B. cereus was centrifuged at 1,912 × g at 4°C for 15 min, and the cell pellet was washed twice with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.4; 0.2 g of KH2PO4, 1.5 g of Na2HPO4·7H2O, 8.0 g of NaCl, and 0.2 g of KCl in 1 L of distilled water). The suspension was then diluted with PBS serially to make 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, 6-, and 7-Log CFU/mL of inocula.

    Detection limit of B. cereus multiplex PCR kit

    To determine detection limit with multiplex B. cereus PCR kit (Jinsung-UniTech Co., Korea), one-milliliter aliquots of each inoculum level were used to prepare DNA template. The one-milliliter aliquots of the inocula were centrifuged at 14,000 rpm at 4°C for 5 min, and the pellets were resuspended in 30 μL of distilled water. The bacterial suspensions were heated at 100°C for 10 min and centrifuged at 14,000 rpm at 4°C for 3 min. The supernatant was used as DNA template in PCR analysis according to the manufacturer’s protocol. Three primers for cry1 (138 bp), groEL (250 bp), and ces (405 bp) were included in the multiplex PCR kit (Jinsung-UniTech Co., Korea). B. cereus producing emetic toxin was detected by the presence of groEL and ces gene. B. cereus, non-producing emetic toxin, was detected by groEL gene. B. thuringiensis was indicated by cry1 and groEL gene.

    Determination of enrichment temperature

    The enrichment broth (TSB with 0.15% polymyxin B) was prepared according to the Bacteriological Analytical Manual6). One-mililiter of polymyxin B (Oxoid, England) was added into 150 mL of TSB after filtering with 0.45 μm pore size filter (Hyundai Micro Co., Korea). The inoculum was inoculated into 50 mL TSB with 0.15% polymyxin B (Oxoid, England) to obtain 1-Log CFU/mL, and the media were incubated at 30°C for 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 h. This process was conducted at other temperatures (37°C and 42°C) in same manners. One-mililiter aliquots of the enriched samples were spread plated on mannitol-egg yolk-polymyxin (MYP ; Becton, Dickinson and Company) agar and incubated at 30°C for 24 h. B. cereus colonies on the plates were manually counted.

    B. cereus inoculation and detection

    The fresh-cut cabbage samples were purchased from a market in Seoul, South Korea. Twenty-gram portions of the cabbage were placed into the filter bag (3M, St. Paul, MN, USA), and 0.1-mL aliquots of the inocula were inoculated at 1-, 2-, and 3-Log CFU/g in each sample. The inoculated samples were rubbed with hands 20 times, and the samples were placed at room temperature for 15 min to allow B. cereus attachment. Eighty milliliters of TSB with 0.15% polymyxin B were placed into the cabbage samples. The samples were enriched at 42°C. The temperature was determined by the previous assay. One-milliliter aliquots of the enriched samples were centrifuged at 14,000 rpm at 4°C for 5 min, and the pellet was washed by adding 30 μL distilled water. For non-filtered samples, the suspension was then boiled at 100°C for 10 min. The heated suspension was left at room temperature for 2 min and centrifuged at 14,000 rpm at 4°C for 3 min. For hydrophobic-filtered samples 1-mL aliquots of the enriched samples were filtered through hydrophobic filter membranes with 0.45 μm pore size (Hyundai micro Co., LTD., South Korea). Before filtering, the hydrophobic filter membranes were dipped in 2-propanol (Sigma-Aldrich Co., St. Louis, USA), and they were then assembled with ADVANTEC® filter holder (Toko Roshi Kaisha., LTD., Japan). Two-milliliters of distilled water were filtered for the hydrophobic filter to wash the residues. After the filter membranes were vortexed in 2 mL of distilled water for 1 min, and the filtrates were centrifuged at 14,000 rpm and 4°C for 5 min. Thirty-microliter of distilled water were added into the pellets, and the suspension were boiled at 100°C for 10 min. The heated suspensions were left at room temperature for 2 min and centrifuged at 14,000 rpm and 4°C for 3 min. The supernatants were used as DNA template. To detect B. cereus in both non-filtered and hydrophobic filtered samples multiplex PCR was conducted as described above.

    Statistical analysis

    Data (n = 4) were analyzed with the general linear model procedure of SAS® (SAS ver. 9.2 Institute Inc., USA). The significance of fixed effects was determined by a pairwise t-test at α = 0.05.

    Results and Discussion

    The minimal detection concentration for detection of B. cereus by multiplex PCR was about 5-Log CFU/mL (Fig. 1). The result indicates that the B. cereus in fresh-cut cabbage samples should be enriched at least up to 5-Log CFU/g to be detected by the multiplex PCR in case B. cereus level is lower than that in a fresh-cut cabbage sample. Thus, enrichment temperatures for B. cereus enrichment were compared, and B. cereus cell counts were generally higher (p < 0.05) at 42°C than those at 30°C and 37°C (Table 1). Hence, we decided to use 42°C for enrichment temperature. When inoculated fresh-cut cabbage samples at 1-Log CFU/ g were enriched for 7 h, B. cereus was detected with multiplex PCR in three of the five samples (60%), even though B. cereus levels were above the detection limit (Table 2 and Fig. 2). B. cereus in 2-Log CFU/g inoculated samples were enriched from 1.7 to 7.5 Log CFU/g that was above the detection limit within 6 h, and the pathogen was detected with multiplex PCR in four samples (80%) (Table 2 and Fig. 2). B. cereus in 3-Log CFU/g inoculated samples were enriched from 2.9 to 8.2 Log CFU/g within 6 h, and the pathogen were detected in all samples (100%) (Table 2 and Fig. 2). These results indicate that enrichment is not sufficient to have accurate detection result with multiplex PCR. Elhariry et al.22) reported that B. cereus spores and vegetative cells could adhere rapidly to cabbage, and that would make the minimal concentration for detection of the multiplex PCR increase. Also, PCR inhibitors such as chlorophyll and pectin could influence detection efficiency of the multiplex PCR13,23). In previous report, hydrophobic liquid was used for the NA purification by acting the liquid as an immiscible phase filter (IPF)24). Similarly, Wu et al.23) reported that the hydrophobic filter can effectively eliminate chlorophyll from lettuce samples to detect E. coli O157:H7. Thus, to improve the detection efficiency of PCR method, enriched samples were filtered with a hydrophobic filter. For filtered samples with a hydrophobic filter after enrichment, B. cereus were detected in all 1-Log CFU/g inoculated samples (100%) within 6 h. The bacteria in 2-Log CFU/g inoculated samples were detected in all samples (100%) within 5 h. These results indicate that filtering enriched samples with a hydrophobic filter can improve detection efficiency of B. cereus in fresh-cut cabbage with multiplex PCR. Hydrophobic filter removes PCR inhibitors such as chlorophyll from fresh-cut cabbage23). Fig. 3

    In conclusion, a combination of enrichment and hydrophobic filtering fresh-cut cabbage samples improves detection efficiency for B. cereus with multiplex PCR.

    Acknowledgements

    This work was supported by the "Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science & Technology Development (Project No. PJ01193002)" Rural Development Administration, Republic of Korea.

    Figure

    JFHS-33-325_F1.gif

    Detection limit of Bacillus cereus multiplex PCR. Lane M: 100-bp ladder; lane 1: < 1 Log CFU/g inoculation; lane 2: 1-Log CFU/g inoculation; lane 3: 2-Log CFU/g inoculation; lane 4: 3- Log CFU/g inoculation; lane 5: 4-Log CFU/g inoculation; lane 6: 5-Log CFU/g inoculation; lane 7: 6-Log CFU/g inoculation; lane 8: 7-Log CFU/g inoculation; lane 9: B. cereus positive control; lane 10: B. thuringiensis positive control.

    JFHS-33-325_F2.gif

    Detection of Bacillus cereus in non-filtered fresh-cut cabbage samples by multiplex PCR. (A) Lane M: 100-bp ladder; lanes 1-2: 3-Log CFU/g inoculated and 4-h enriched samples; lanes 3-4: 1-Log CFU/g inoculated and 5-h enriched samples; lanes 5-6: 2-Log CFU/g inoculated and 5-h enriched samples; lanes 7-8: 3-Log CFU/g inoculated and 5-h enriched samples; lanes 9-10: 1-Log CFU/g inoculated and 6-h enriched samples; lanes 11-12: 2-Log CFU/g inoculated and 6-h enriched samples; lanes 13-14: 3-Log CFU/g inoculated and 6-h enriched samples; lane 15: B. cereus positive control; lane 16: B. thuringiensis positive control; lanes 17-18: 1-Log CFU/g inoculated and 7-h enriched samples; (B) lane M: 100-bp ladder; lanes 1-3: 1-Log CFU/g inoculated and 4-h enriched samples; lane 4: B. cereus positive control; lane 5: B. thuringiensis positive control; lanes 6- 8: 1-Log CFU/g inoculated and 5-h enriched samples; lanes 9-11: 2-Log CFU/g inoculated and 5-h enriched samples; lanes 12-14: 3-Log CFU/g inoculated and 5-h enriched samples; (C) lane M: 100-bp ladder; lanes 1-3: 1-Log CFU/g inoculated and 6-h enriched samples; lanes 4-6: 2-Log CFU/g inoculated and 6-h enriched samples; lanes 7-9: 3-Log CFU/g inoculated and 6-h enriched samples; lanes 10-12: 1-Log CFU/g inoculated and 7-h enriched samples; lane 13: B. cereus positive control; lane 14: B. thuringiensis positive control.

    JFHS-33-325_F3.gif

    Detection of Bacillus cereus in hydrophobic-filtrated fresh-cut cabbage homogenates by multiplex PCR. (A) Lane M: 100-bp ladder; lanes 1-2: 3-Log CFU/g inoculated and 4-h enriched samples; lanes 3-4: 1-Log CFU/g inoculated and 5-h enriched samples; lanes 5-6: 2-Log CFU/g inoculated and 5-h enriched samples; lanes 7-8: 3-Log CFU/g inoculated and 5-h enriched samples; lanes 9-10: 1-Log CFU/ inoculated and 6-h enriched samples; lanes 11-12: 2-Log CFU/g inoculated and 6-h enriched samples; lanes 13-14: 3-Log CFU/g inoculated and 6-h enriched samples; lane 15: B. cereus positive control; lane 16: B. thuringiensis positive control; lanes 17-18: 1-Log CFU/g inoculated and 7-h enriched samples; (B) lane M: 100-bp ladder; lanes 1-3: 1- Log CFU/g inoculated and 4-h enriched samples; lane 4: B. cereus positive control; lane 5: B. thuringiensis positive control; lanes 6-8: 1-Log CFU/g inoculated and 5-h enriched samples; lanes 9-11: 2-Log CFU/g inoculated and 5-h enriched samples; lanes 12-14: 3-Log CFU/g inoculated and 5-h enriched samples; (C) lane M: 100-bp ladder; lanes 1-3: 1-Log CFU/g inoculated and 6-h enriched samples; lanes 4-6: 2-Log CFU/g inoculated and 6-h enriched samples; lanes 7-9: 3-Log CFU/g inoculated and 6-h enriched samples; lane 10: B. cereus positive control; lane 11: B. thuringiensis positive control; lanes 12-14: 1-Log CFU/g inoculated and 7-h enriched samples;

    Table

    Bacillus cereus cell counts (Log CFU/g; mean ± standard deviation) in enrichment broth samples inoculated at 1- Log CFU/mL (n = 4)

    Bacillus cereus cell counts (Log CFU/g; mean ± standard deviation) in fresh-cut cabbage samples (n = 5) during enrichment at 42°C

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